Circulating immune complexes (CIC) were demonstrated in sera of Guatemalan patients with onchocerciasis by Raji cell radioimmunoassay. 44% of patients but none of controls had abnormally high concentrations of CIC in their sera. The increased concentrations of CIC were found more frequently in patients with lower density of microfilariae in their skin biopsies. Patients with higher concentrations of CIC appeared to have increased titers of serum antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus. A depression of both humoral immune response to tetanus toxoid and delayed hypersensitivity reaction to PPD were found in patients with onchocerciasis. CIC may be involved in modulation of the immune response in onchocerciasis.