Events that lead to phagocytosis of complement (C3)- or IgG-coated particles after their interaction with specific cell surface receptors are poorly understood. Two mouse monoclonal antibodies (an IgM and an IgG2a) to a human granulocyte-monocyte surface membrane differentiation antigen (Mol) inhibited ingestion by granulocytes both of oil Red O particles opsonized with normal human serum or with IgG and of sheep erythrocytes sensitized with IgG. In addition, they specifically inhibited rosetting between phagocytes and sheep erythrocytes coated with C3bi, a fragment of the complement component C3, generated by cleaving C3b with C3b inactivator and beta IH protein. These monoclonal anti-Mol antibodies did not inhibit IgG Fc, C3b or C3d receptor-mediated binding of erythrocytes coated with the respective proteins. The Fab fragment of the IgG2a monoclonal antibody inhibited noncytotoxic enzyme release from granulocytes when these cells were stimulated with zymosan coated with C3bi. Electrophoretic transfer of polymorphonuclear leukocyte detergent lysates to nitrocellulose, followed by immunofixation with monoclonal antibody, showed that these antibodies were directed to a 155,000-mol wt glycoprotein. This surface membrane structure appears to be involved in Fc and C3 receptor-dependent phagocytosis and closely associated with the C3bi receptor.