Although measles vaccine has been licensed since 1968, immunization against measles has not met with much success in France, partly because the disease is no longer feared. The level of vaccination coverage appears to be less than 20%. Indeed, the present epidemiologic situation is similar to the natural situation in a developed country. A multicenter, retrospective hospital survey revealed that 1,157 patients with measles were hospitalized during a 30-month period in five areas (total population, 4.2 million). Analysis of the preliminary results of this survey and of available national data showed an incidence of 5.6-7.5 cases per 1,000 population; a hospitalization rate of one per 10,000; a death rate of 0.56 per 1 million; and a disability rate of 0.48 per 1 million. Encephalitis (the definition of which should be reappraised) occurred once in 2,850 cases, and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was not rare (incidence, one case per 2.6 million people). The problem posed by measles is sufficiently grave to justify a national campaign urging the widespread vaccination of children.