Four members of a Gardner's syndrome family had rectal and colon polyposis treated with nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Three of these patients had had subtotal colectomy and ileoproctostomy and the residual polyps arose in the rectal mucosa. The polyps almost completely disappeared when sulindac was administered. Indomethacin therapy over the course of a preceding year was ineffective in one of these patients. One patient (case 4) had diffuse polyposis in an intact colon. After sulindac therapy for a year, only three small mucosal polyps could be identified by air contrast barium enema and colonoscopic examination. These observations confirm those of Pollard and Luckert [1,2] on rats with chemically induced polyposis of the intestinal tract.