L-Pipecolate formation exhibits considerable regional differences in the central nervous system of the mouse, dog, and monkey, as reflected in measurements of the activity of delta1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate reductase (D.C. 126.96.36.199). The rate of reduction of delta1-piperidine-2-carboxylate was high in certain telencephalic and diencephalic regions, lower in the brain stem, and not measurable in the cerebellum and spinal cord. In addition to delta1-piperidine-2-carboxylate, delta1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate was also found to be a substrate for the same enzyme in homogenates of mouse forebrain. Enzyme kinetic data for both substrates and, in addition, for NADH were derived from determinations using enzyme fractions of mouse telencephalon. The discussion is based on earlier findings concerning the utilisation of D-proline in the neuronal protein synthesis of mouse brain.