Ocular motility problems of 50 consecutive patients following orbital decompression for dysthyroid (Graves') ophthalmopathy were analyzed retrospectively. No significant relationship to the development of postoperative diplopia was seen in the amount of retrodisplacement of the globe, the anatomical approach for orbital decompression, or the indication for decompression. Several clinical observations were made. Patients whose indication for orbital decompression was a vision-threatening ophthalmopathy were more likely (although not statistically significantly) to develop postoperative strabismus. Patients who developed changes in preoperative strabismus were more likely to develop increased esotropia and/or restrictive hypertropia. Of 32 patients who were orthotropic in the primary position before operation, 11 developed postoperative strabismus in the primary position. Only five patients had normal versions and ductions before operation. All five of these patients had normal versions and ductions after operation.