A retrospective evaluation was made on the value of amphotericin B lozenges in the selective elimination of yeasts from the oropharynx. Four different groups of severely granulocytopenic patients were studied. All 77 patients received amphotericin B orally as a suspension or as tablets. Four amphotericin B lozenges were also administered daily for topical antimycotic decontamination of the oropharynx. This was done in the presence of colonization-resistance decreasing factors such as a nasogastric tube (Group I, 19 patients) or mucosal damage (Group III, 25 patients) and in patients with four or more consecutive throat swab cultures with yeasts (Group IV, 11 patients). The 22 patients in Group II did not receive lozenges. The addition of lozenges resulted in a decrease in the mean "growth density" of Candida cells in the oropharynx. This reduction was significant in Group III (p less than 0.01) and Group IV (p less than 0.02) and became evident during the first week of treatment. In patients with a nasogastric tube, however, 51.8% of the throat swab cultures revealed yeasts. Increasing the dose of the lozenges might improve the results in these patients. Topical treatment of the oropharynx with amphotericin B lozenges is advocated for patients who are susceptible to Candida infections.