Induced oral respiration in eight growing monkeys led to a lowering of the chin, a steeper mandibular plane angle, and an increase in the gonial angle as compared with eight control animals. The posterior border of the mandible maintained its normal inclination relative to the skull. The mandible underwent a posterior rotation in the experimental animals and an anterior rotation in the controls. The findings suggest that the position of the chin and the inclination of the mandibular plane are controlled by the balance between the suprahyoid and the orofacial muscles. Since the posterior border of the ramus undergoes gradual remodeling and maintains its normal inclination, it is assumed that the masticatory muscles are not significantly affected by the altered respiratory function. It is therefore concluded that the ramus with the masticatory muscles and the chin with its suprahyoid and orofacial muscles represent two relatively independent systems.