Six isolates of a strain (MRP-MT) of Trichomonas vaginalis obtained from a woman before and after unsuccessful treatment with metronidazole had an appreciably lower susceptibility to metronidazole both in vitro in the aerobic tube assay and in vivo in the mouse assay than did control strains from patients cured with standard doses of the drug. Our results support recent evidence that metronidazole-resistant strains of T vaginalis do cause treatment failure. Resistance of these strains could be detected in vitro under only aerobic but not anaerobic conditions. The prevalence of metronidazole-resistant strains of T vaginalis should be kept under surveillance in order to estimate their clinical importance. The patient harbouring the resistant strain MRP-MT was finally cured with increased doses of ornidazole.