Twenty-four renal allografts functioning up to six years from the date of transplantation were retained in situ from four days to five years following return of the patient to hemodialysis. Fifteen of the 24 kidneys were removed for specific indications within four days to ten months. The reasons for allograft nephrectomy included fever, hematuria, graft pain and tenderness, and severe hypertension. Nine patients remained asymptomatic with grafts retained three months to five years (median, two years) following return to hemodialysis. It appears safe to retain nonfunctioning grafts in asymptomatic patients, thereby avoiding an unnecessary operation when failure is due to chronic rejection or recurrent glomerulonephritis. Nevertheless, in many patients complications eventually develop for which the allograft will be removed.