Ultrastructural aspects of fibrous structures associated with basal bodies of green algae are critically discussed. It is apparent that variation among these structures is much greater than in microtubular flagellar root systems and it is therefore suggested that fibrous structures may be more useful than microtubular roots in elucidating phylogenetic relationships within the Chlorophyceae sensu Stewart and Mattox and the Prasinophyceae sensu Christensen. Two main types of fibrous structures are distinguished: (1) Connecting fibres (these connect different basal bodies); (2) Fibrous roots (these originate at basal bodies and terminate somewhere else in the cell). Fibrous roots are of two types: (a) microtubular-root associated striated fibres (striation pattern 25-35 nm; system I-fibres); (b) striated fibres composed of a bundle of filaments (filament diameter: 5-10 nm; striation pattern greater than 80 nm; system II fibres). Numbers, disposition and substructure of connecting fibres and fibrious roots are variable in different genera of green algae. In the experimental secretion new observations on fibrous roots in the ulvalean genus Enteromorpha as well as preliminary information on fibrous structures in Carteria obtusa and Bryopsis lyngbyei are included. Functional and evolutionary aspects of fibrous structures associated with the flagellar apparatus of green algae are discussed.