The cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) of seventeen yeast species of the genera Saccharomyces and Kluyveromyces were analyzed by one-dimensional gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. The electrophoretic patterns of cytoplasmic r-proteins from different species display extensive differences in both the 40S and the 60S subunit. Relatedness of species suggested by r-protein patterns correlates well with that based on DNA/DNA homology (Bicknell and Douglas 1970). Immunochemical cross-reactions and antibiotic susceptibility tests were also used to compare different species. Analyses of r-proteins from two different interspecific hybrids showed that their ribosomes were hybrid, containing r-proteins from both parents. These findings are discussed in relation to the evolution of yeast species and the regulation of expression of r-proteins in eucaryotes.