Genetic mechanisms(s) of gamma-ray resistance of the diploid and budding haploid cells of S. cerevisiae were investigated, with special reference to mitotic recombination, by examining 11 rad mutant strains. The radiosensitivity of the diploid was markedly enhanced in certain gamma-ray-sensitive rad mutants, whereas the sensitivity of the haploid was not so enhanced in these rad mutants. These enhanced sensitivities of diploids were irrespective of their own haploid sensitivities. From these results, the existence of a mechanism of diploid-specific recovery was postulated. The magnitude of diploid radioresistance in rad mutants was positively correlated with the ability for the induction of mitotic recombinational events which were controlled by RAD genes belonging to the RAD-51 genetic pathway. The genetic mechanism(s) of the diploid recovery after gamma-irradiation are probably related to recombinational processes between the homologous chromosomes leading to reciprocal recombination or non-reciprocal gene conversion. Furthermore, the higher radioresistance of budding cells in comparison with the non-budding cells was also correlated to the diploid radioresistance with a few exceptions. Consequently, the mechanism(s) of budding radioresistance similar to the diploid recovery seems to be related to mitotic recombinational processes.