Mouse thyroid tissue was dissociated with collagenase, fixed in periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde (PLP), and further dissociated with EDTA and trypsin to yield cell suspensions containing mainly follicle epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells. H-2 complex antigens were detected on the vascular endothelial cells at about the same high density as on peritoneal macrophages, and at a lower concentration on the laterobasal membranes of follicle epithelial cells. Neither of these cell types expressed detectable Ia antigens, but a minor cell type was presented that showed dense expression of Ia antigens. This cell type was probably a passenger leukocyte. It showed ultrastructural characteristics closely resembling those of spleen dendritic cells, which are known to express Ia antigens and to be potent stimulator cells in mixed lymphocyte culture. Dissociation of thyroid glands that had been cultured in vitro for 14 days yielded only follicle epithelium, and these cells showed the same labeling density of H-2 complex antigens as on uncultured cells. Dissociation of islets of Langerhans yielded capillary endothelial cells and beta cells, neither of which expressed detectable Ia antigens. The labeling results are discussed in relation to the cellular changes that occur during culture in vitro and the altered behavior of cultured allografts.