Treatment of acquired aplastic anemia with androgens has been occasionally associated with the development of hepatic tumors. We have studied a 13-year-old boy with idiopathic aplastic anemia in whom oxymetholone treatment was associated with a partial hematological remission. Thirty-four months later, however, the patient developed multiple hepatic tumors. When oxymetholone therapy was discontinued, the aplastic anemia relapsed. He then underwent bone marrow transplantation from his HLA-A, B, and D-compatible sibling. This was followed by hematological and immunological reconstitution. The hepatic tumors underwent progressive regression after bone marrow transplantation. The patient is now 3 years post-bone marrow transplantation and is in complete remission of his aplastic anemia with no evidence of detectable liver tumors.