The effectiveness of a combination of somatropin (0.1 IU/kg in three doses per week) and oxandrolone (0.1 mg/kg/day) in the treatment of human growth hormone deficiency was evaluated. Twelve children with hypopituitarism were placed into two separate groups. Each group was treated for five 6-month periods, and anthropologic measurements and bone-age determinations were obtained at the end of each period. Both groups of children grew approximately 20 cm during the 30 months of treatment. Somatropin increased the growth rate significantly both when given alone and when given in combination with oxandrolone. Although the addition of oxandrolone may have diminished the waning effect often seen during somatropin therapy, the acceleration in bone age indicates the need for further long-term studies before oxandrolone can be recommended as an adjunct to treatment with somatropin.