Two cases of recurrent lupus erythematosus involving renal transplants are described. Neither case showed changes of transplant rejection. The clinical course, serologic tests, and renal histopathologic findings remarkably paralleled those seen during each patient's primary disease presentation. Typical and severe extrarenal manifestations of dermatitis, pleuritis, and polyarthritis were noted before renal allograft lupus involvement. Rapid renofunctional deterioration was halted in one patient by plasmapharesis. In the second patient a more protracted course involving the allograft is anticipated. Although previous experiences suggest that lupus disease activity "burns out" after the development of chronic renal failure, findings from these two cases argue against this presumption. Longer periods of transplant follow-up may show more recurrence of lupus erythematosus.