A persistent defect of Aspergillus killing was observed in the neutrophils of a 6-year-old patient with a systemic A. fumigatus infection which was highly refractory to anti-mycotic therapy. Aspergillus phagocytosis in vitro was normal, but nearly 80% of the ingested organisms (versus 30% in the controls) survived intracellularly during the 2-hr assay period. The patient's neutrophils showed a subnormal frequency of nitroblue tetrazolium reduction and a subnormal hexose monophosphate shunt activation in response to phagocytosis. The metabolic responsiveness, however, was clearly superior to that of chronic granulomatous disease neutrophils tested for comparison. The immune status of the patient and the following properties of his neutrophils were found to be normal: random and chemotactic motility, killing of S. aureus and C. albicans, and the contents of several granula enzymes. Our findings suggest the existence of neutrophil factors or functions which are required for killing Aspergillus, but not S. aureus and C. albicans.