Carbohydrate metabolism in pregnancy. XVII. Diurnal profiles of plasma glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, and individual amino acids in late normal pregnancy

Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1981 Aug 1;140(7):730-6.


Diurnal profiles have been constructed for glucose, free fatty acids (FFA), triglycerides, cholesterol, and ten neutral amino acids in subjects with normal carbohydrate metabolism during late pregnancy and in age- and weight-matched nongravid women. Samples of blood were secured during a 24 hour period while the subjects were receiving a liquid formula diet (containing 2,110 kcal with 275 gm carbohydrate and 75 gm protein) in three equal feedings at 0800, 1300, and 1800 hours. Postprandial excursions for most nutrients, as well as plasma concentrations after overnight fast and before each meal, were significantly different in the pregnant subjects. The studies indicate that criteria of normalcy based on observations in nongravid women cannot be invoked assess fuel homeostasis in late pregnancy, and that separate criteria are necessary to evaluate nutrient regulation at this time.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Amino Acids / blood
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism*
  • Cholesterol / blood
  • Circadian Rhythm
  • Fatty Acids, Nonesterified / blood
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Pregnancy Trimester, Third
  • Pregnancy*
  • Triglycerides / blood


  • Amino Acids
  • Blood Glucose
  • Fatty Acids, Nonesterified
  • Insulin
  • Triglycerides
  • Cholesterol