PIP: 3 African cases of chloroquine-resistent (RI) P. falciparum malaria, proved by recrudescences after administration of recommended doses and adequate serum levels of chloroquine, are described. The 3 patients, Swedish women aged 43, 27, and 41, had never visited areas where chloroquine-resistent P. falciparum is known to exist. 2 patients had taken regular prophylaxis with chloroquine, while the 3rd had interrupted chloroquine use with temporary use of pyrimethamine. All 3 were treated with chloroquine and had serum levels well above those considered necessary for cure of malaria due to sensitive strains of P. falciparum. All had recrudescences, ranging from 13 to 41 days after the previous chloroquine treatment. Reinfection was not possible for any of the patients and none took other drugs during the study period. In 2 cases the Rieckmann in vitro test for resistence failed. In 1 case from Madagascar the in vitro method described by Nguyen-Dinh and Trager produced results indicating resistence and in another case from Madagascar the results indicated probable resistence, but the procedure failed in the case from Kenya. The 2 cases mark the 1st time resistence has been reported from Madagascar. In vivo tests in all cases and in vitro results in 2 cases, together with the adequate serum levels of chloroquine, confirm that malaria due to chloroquine-resistent P. falciparum is being transmitted in some parts of Africa.