The treatment of second degree haemorrhoids by injection, rubber band ligation, maximal anal dilatation, and haemorrhoidectomy: a prospective clinical trial

Aust N Z J Surg. 1981 Oct;51(5):458-62. doi: 10.1111/j.1445-2197.1981.tb05985.x.


One hundred and twenty patients with confirmed second degree haemorrhoids were randomly allocated to four treatment groups; injection, rubber band ligation, maximal anal dilatation, and haemorrhoidectomy. Each groups consisted of 30 patients. All patients were regularly followed up for at least one year. Assessment at one year showed that haemorrhoidectomy "cured" the haemorrhoids in 29 out of 30 patients. Rubber band ligation relieved 25 out of 30 and maximal anal dilatation 24 out of 30. Injection was the least effective treatment, and relieved 18 of the 30 patients, with a cure rate of 60% only. Haemorrhoidectomy caused pain in all cases, anal stenosis in two, postoperative haemorrhage in two, and the patients required an average hospital stay of 11.5 days and an average of a further 15.5 days off work. Rubber band ligation was painless in 26 patients out of 30, and maximal anal dilatation was painless in 25 our of 30. There were no postoperative complications in the latter two treatment groups. Haemorrhoidectomy is good in "curing" the disease, but the higher possibility of postoperative pain and complications and longer hospital stay would not justify its use in the treatment of second degree haemorrhoids. Both rubber band ligation and maximal anal dilatation are effective and relatively free from complications. Rubber band ligation has the additional advantage of not requiring hospital stay or anaesthesia and is therefore considered to be the most appropriate method of treatment for second degree haemorrhoids.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Dilatation
  • Female
  • Hemorrhoids / surgery
  • Hemorrhoids / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Ligation
  • Male
  • Methods
  • Middle Aged
  • Phenols / therapeutic use
  • Prospective Studies


  • Phenols