Amphetamine psychosis and schizophrenia: a dual model

Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1981 Winter;5(4):449-61. doi: 10.1016/0149-7634(81)90015-4.


Several of the behavioral consequences of acute and chronic amphetamine treatment were evaluated and related to the underlying neurochemical correlates of drug treatment. It was suggested that decreased noradrenergic activity after long-term amphetamine treatment influences stimulus sampling, whereas enhanced dopaminergic activity was responsible for the progressive augmentation of stereotypy and self-stimulation behavior observed after long-term exposure to amphetamine. It was hypothesized that amphetamine-induced psychosis and the symptomatology associated with schizophrenia are related to alterations in both norepinephrine and dopamine activity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amphetamine / adverse effects*
  • Animals
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dopamine / adverse effects
  • Dopamine / physiology
  • Humans
  • Norepinephrine / physiology
  • Psychoses, Substance-Induced*
  • Schizophrenia / etiology*
  • Schizophrenia / physiopathology
  • Self Administration
  • Self Stimulation
  • Stereotyped Behavior


  • Amphetamine
  • Dopamine
  • Norepinephrine