This study is a review of cryptococcal meningitis in Queensland, Australia, with particular reference to changes in incidence, methods of diagnosis and treatment and their effects on mortality and morbidity over the past three decades. Cryptococcal meningitis remains more prevalent among males, and aborigines. Mortality has declined dramatically since 1948, due to the use of the specific antifungal agents amphotericin B, flucytosine, and more recently miconazole. The availability of cranial computerized axial tomography and the early treatment of hydrocephalus have significantly contributed to the overall management of these patients. 75% of patients receiving a full course of treatment can now be expected to make a satisfactory recovery.