Ophthalmological examination of the infant. Developmental aspects

Surv Ophthalmol. 1982 Jan-Feb;26(4):177-89. doi: 10.1016/0039-6257(82)90078-9.


In recent years, the ophthalmic examination of infants has been of increasing interest to both clinicians and vision researchers. Clinicians have documented a greater risk of retinopathy, strabismus and amblyopia in premature infants, especially those of low birthweight. In addition to the external and retinal examination of the infant eye, a number of clinical tests can help the ophthalmologist to detect visual dysfunction through the evaluation of pupillary responses and ocular motility. Recently, the development of objective techniques (optokinetic nystagmus, forced choice preferential looking, and visually evoked potentials) have not only aided in the detection of ophthalmic disorders in infants; they have contributed to useful definitions of "normal" vision at various ages and to the understanding of factors that influence the pre- and post-gestational development of visual function.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amblyopia / diagnosis
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Evoked Potentials, Visual
  • Eye Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Eye Movements
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Nystagmus, Pathologic / diagnosis
  • Physical Examination*
  • Reflex, Pupillary
  • Strabismus / diagnosis
  • Vision Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Visual Acuity