In non insulin dependent diabetics (N.I.D.D.) of normal body weight, the acute insulin response to glucose is defective while that to pharmacologic agents such as tolbutamide is less impaired. This specific B-cell insensitivity to glucose results from unknown and perhaps multiple mechanisms. Hyperglycemia may be itself aggravate this phenomenon. To test this hypothesis acute insulin release (delta I: sum of increment at 2, 5, 10 min) after intravenous and tolbutamide injection was studied in 5 N.I.D.D. with fasting blood glucose averaging 12.1 mM/I (range 10.7-13.7) before and after 20 hours of glycemic normalization by an artificial pancreas. Intravenous injection of .3 g/k glucose did not elicit an acute insulin or C-peptide response, but following Tolbutamide (20 mg/kg) delta I was 44 +/- 21 microU/ml and delta C-peptide 0.84 +/- 0.37 nM/I. After 20 hr of normoglycemia a response to glucose was apparent (delta I 60 +/- 24 and delta CP 0.86 +/- 26) that to Tolbutamide was unchanged (delta I 58 +/- 26 and delta CP 0.97 +/- 0.27). These results suggest that 20 hr of normoglycemia improve significantly the "glucoreceptor" function of the B-cell in N.I.D.D.