Centrifugal innervation of the retina by luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH)-immunoreactive telencephalic neurons in teleostean fishes

Cell Tissue Res. 1982;222(2):313-23. doi: 10.1007/BF00213215.


In cichlid, poecilid and centrarchid fishes luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH)-immunoreactive neurons are found in a cell group (nucleus olfactoretinalis) located at the transition between the ventral telencephalon and olfactory bulb. Processes of these neurons project to the contralateral retina, traveling along the border between the internal plexiform and internal nuclear layer, and probably terminating on amacrine or bipolar cells. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) injected into the eye or optic nerve is transported retrogradely in the optic nerve to the contralateral nucleus olfactoretinalis where neuronal perikarya are labeled. Labeled processes leave this nucleus in a rostral direction and terminate in the olfactory bulb. The nucleus olfactoretinalis is present only in fishes, such as cichlids, poecilids and centrarchids, in which the olfactory bulbs border directly the telencephalic hemispheres. In cyprinid, silurid and notopterid fishes, in which the olfactory bulbs lie beneath the olfactory epithelium and are connected to the telencephalon via olfactory stalks, the nucleus olfactoretinalis or a comparable arrangement of LHRH-immunoreactive neurons is lacking. After retrograde transport of HRP in the optic nerve of these fishes no labeling of neurons in the telencephalon occurred. It is proposed that the nucleus olfactoretinalis anatomically and functionally interconnects and integrates parts of the olfactory and optic systems.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Transport
  • Female
  • Fishes / anatomy & histology*
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analysis*
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / metabolism
  • Histocytochemistry
  • Horseradish Peroxidase / pharmacology
  • Neurons / cytology
  • Neurons / metabolism*
  • Olfactory Bulb / cytology*
  • Olfactory Bulb / metabolism
  • Optic Nerve / metabolism
  • Retina / cytology*
  • Retina / metabolism
  • Telencephalon / cytology*
  • Telencephalon / metabolism


  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • Horseradish Peroxidase