The protein complement of the bovine mitochondrial ribosome has been analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels to determine the number and molecular weights of the ribosomal proteins. Salt-washed ribosomal subunits are found to contain a total of 85 ribosomal proteins, 84 of which are electrophoretically distinct between the two subunits. These proteins are also electrophoretically distinguished from those of cytoplasmic ribosomes. This large number of proteins does not appear to be due to contamination by cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins or by adherent nonribosomal proteins. The molecular weights of these proteins are considerably larger than those of Escherichia coli ribosomal proteins, and are similar to those of bovine cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins. The sum of the molecular weights of the 85 proteins agrees well with that predicted by physical chemical measurements of the total mass of protein in the two subunits. Bovine mitochondrial ribosomes thus contain about twice as much protein as RNA, a highly unusual composition in comparison to the other kinds of ribosomes which have been characterized to date. In addition, it appears that the ribosomal proteins themselves are less basic than the proteins of most other ribosomes.