Which mathematical model to study uremic toxicity? National Cooperative Dialysis Study

Clin Nephrol. 1982 Jun;17(6):303-14.


Mathematical modelling advantages and limitations to study dialysis adequacy are evaluated, the use of the single pool urea model in the guidance of the National Cooperative Dialysis Study (NCDS) is described, and therapeutic control results from the Control phase of the NCDS are reported. The relevance of using urea as a target compound and the practicality of modelling its levels in clinical settings using a single pool model are discussed. The NCDS involves intensive participation of 8 geographically separate centers to control BUN at two weekly time averaged concentrations (50 +/- 5 and 100 +/- 5 mg/dl) using standard clinical dialyzers and two different lengths of dialysis (3 and 4.5 hr) in the presence of .8-1.4 g/kg/day protein intake. Control phase data on 195 patients indicates a remarkable level of clinical precision and method reproducibility as well as a high degree of patient compliance. Patient urea volumes averaged 39.8 +/- 8.9 liters, net rates of daily protein catabolism were 1.06 +/- .17 g/kg; daily weight gain: .96 +/0 .43 kg; and dialyzer clearances to maintain patients in the control phase for 3 to 6 months were 168 +/- 44 ml/min. Clearances required to randomize patients into four experimental groups ranged 40-250 ml/min. Less than 1/4 of dialyzers were larger than 1.8 m2 and were not specific to any experimental group.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Blood Urea Nitrogen
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Humans
  • Models, Biological*
  • Renal Dialysis
  • Urea / metabolism
  • Uremia* / metabolism
  • Uremia* / therapy


  • Dietary Proteins
  • Urea