The effectiveness of physicians in detecting abnormalities of height, weight, vision, hearing, blood pressure, and the presence of dental caries in 1,158 kindergarten pupils was compared with that of a separate screening program staffed by trained volunteers and public health nurses. The screening program was significantly more effective in identifying abnormalities in vision, hearing, blood pressure, and the presence of dental caries. Pediatricians were no more effective than other physicians in detecting abnormalities. We conclude that the preschool examination should be modified to emphasize screening tests. These screening tests can be effectively performed by paramedical personnel, resulting in increased detection of health problems and decreased demands on physicians' time.