Diabetic thoracic radiculopathy has been reported rarely. Fifteen new cases, seen in an equal number of patients over a 3-year period and confirmed by electromyographic findings, have been analyzed. All patients presented with severe abdominal or chest pain, which often was not radicular in character. The presence of dysesthesias and an abnormal sensory examination of the trunk aided diagnosis. The pain was frequently associated with marked weight loss but carried a good prognosis for recovery. Six additional patients with negative electromyographic examinations were considered to have the disorder. Diabetic thoracic radiculopathy produces a distinct syndrome and may be more common than is generally recognized.