Sixty-five patients with multiple myeloma resistant to melphalan were randomized to receive cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), and prednisone (CAP) (30 patients) or carmustine (BCNU), doxorubicin, and prednisone (BAP) (35 patients). Objective responses occurred in two patients in the CAP group and in seven in the BAP group. Indirect responses were noted in seven additional patients in the CAP group and in six additional patients in the BAP group. Toxic effects consisted mainly of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Median survival did not differ between the two treatment groups (CAP, 8.4 months; BAP, 7.7). Objective responders had a longer survival than nonresponders (14.5 vs 7.7 months).