We report the results of a survey of cigarette smoking rates in Australia. A representative sample of 4309 people (2137 men and 2172 women) aged 16 years and over was interviewed in winter 1980. Forty per cent of men and 31% of women smoked cigarettes, the same percentages as in 1976. The highest rate of cigarette smoking (56%, up 10%) was amongst men aged 20 to 24 years. The rate of cigarette smoking peaks when smokers are in their twenties and again at around 50 years of age. Health education is urgently needed for these age groups. There is a negative relationship between smoking and occupational/educational levels in men.