Radioactive amino acids were injected into restricted regions of the globus pallidus of rhesus macaques to allow identification of the organization and courses of efferent pallidal projections. The previously identified projection of the internal pallidal segment (GPi) to ventral thalamic nuclei showed a topographic organization, with the predominant projection from ventral GPi being to medial and caudal ventralis anterior (VA) and lateralis (VL) and from dorsal GPi to lateral and rostral VA and VL. Pallidal efferent fibers also extended caudally and dorsally into pars caudalis of VL, but they spared the portion of pars oralis of VL shown by others to receive input from the cerebellum. In addition to centromedian labeling in all animals, the parafascicular nucleus was also labeled when isotope was injected into dorsal GPi. The medial route from GPi to the midbrain tegmentum was more substantial than has been shown before, and along this route there was an indication that some fibers terminated in the prerubral region. The projection to the pedunculopontine nucleus was extensive, and fibers continued caudally into the parabrachial nuclei. Pallidal projections to the thalamus seem to be topographically organized but spare thalamic regions that interact with area 4. Caudally directed efferent fibers follow multiple routes and extend more caudally than to the pedunculopontine nuclei.