Comparative physiologically based pharmacokinetics of hexobarbital, phenobarbital and thiopental in the rat

J Pharmacokinet Biopharm. 1982 Feb;10(1):53-75. doi: 10.1007/BF01059183.


A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model, which is an extension of the Bischoff-Dedrick multiorgan model, was developed to described the kinetics of barbiturates (hexobarbital, phenobarbital, and thiopental) in the rat. The model is composed of 11 organ or tissue compartments. The brain compartment was featured as a nonflow-limited organ for some low lipid soluble barbiturates. Michaelis-Menten constants for drug metabolism (Km, Vmax) were determined from in vitro experiments using liver microsomes. Binding of drugs to plasma and tissue proteins was measured in vitro using an equilibrium dialysis method. Distribution of drugs to red blood cells was measured in vitro with thiopental exhibiting a concentration dependent distribution. Penetration rates of the barbiturates into the brain were predicted on the basis of their lipid solubilities. A set of mass balance equations included terms for the inflow and outflow of drug carried by the perfusing blood, drug metabolism, protein binding, and penetration rate into the brain as well as blood flow rate and tissue mass. Solution of the system of equations yielded the time courses of drugs in each organ. However, predicted time course of drugs in plasma and brain were not in good agreement with those observed. Therefore, the tissue to plasma distribution ratios evaluated from in vivo experiments were substituted for the in vitro values, resulting in fairly good agreement between predicted and observed values.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Erythrocytes / metabolism
  • Hexobarbital / blood
  • Hexobarbital / metabolism*
  • Kinetics
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Male
  • Microsomes, Liver / metabolism
  • Models, Biological
  • Phenobarbital / blood
  • Phenobarbital / metabolism*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred Strains
  • Thiopental / blood
  • Thiopental / metabolism*


  • Hexobarbital
  • Thiopental
  • Phenobarbital