Of 106 eyes with trauma involving the posterior segment, 12 could not be repaired, 74 were treated with vitrectomy, and 20 without vitrectomy. Fifty-five eyes (52%) achieved functional success (defined as a final visual acuity of 6/30 [20/100] or better or as a postoperative improvement in visual acuity from light perception or worse to 6/240 [5/200] or better), 16 (15%) attained anatomic success (attached retinas and generally clear media) but were functional failures, and 35 (33%) were both anatomic and functional failures. The prognosis was better in cases with intraocular foreign bodies and worse in cases with retinal detachments, marked vitreous hemorrhage, and large scleral lacerations. Traumatic involvements of the lens did not appear to affect the prognosis. Prophylactic scleral buckling appeared to lessen the incidence of postoperative retinal detachment. The eyes that underwent vitrectomy within 14 days of the injury had a better final visual outcome than those that underwent later vitrectomy.