Therapy with essential amino acids and their nitrogen-free analogues in severe renal failure

Am J Clin Nutr. 1978 Oct;31(10):1793-6. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/31.10.1793.


The effects of therapy with essential amino acids and their nitrogen-free hydroxy and keto precursers on nitrogen and amino acid metabolism of patients with chronic renal failure were examined. Data obtained under treatment with essential amino acids and alpha-keto acid analogues showed higher levels of plasma amino acids, C3-complement, and transferrin than with a low-protein diet alone. Nitrogen balance became positive and plasma urea levels fell. With keto acid analogue therapy, these effects could be obtained with a reduced nitrogen intake. Supplementation of a low protein diet with alpha-hydroxy acid analogues was associated with more positive nitrogen balance and a rise in plasma histidine and methionine. However, plasma levels of three other essential amino acids fell.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Controlled Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acids / blood
  • Amino Acids, Essential / therapeutic use*
  • Complement C3 / metabolism
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Humans
  • Hydroxy Acids / therapeutic use*
  • Keto Acids / therapeutic use*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / diet therapy*
  • Nitrogen / metabolism
  • Transferrin / metabolism
  • Urea / blood


  • Amino Acids
  • Amino Acids, Essential
  • Complement C3
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Hydroxy Acids
  • Keto Acids
  • Transferrin
  • Urea
  • Nitrogen