The chromosomal locations of the 18S + 28S and 5S ribosomal RNA genes have been analyzed by in situ hybridization in ten anuran species of different taxonomic positions. The chosen species belong to both primitive and evolved families of the present day Anura. Each examined species has 18s + 28S rRNA genes clustered in one locus per haploid chromosome set: this locus is placed either in an intercalary position or proximal to the centromere, or close to the telomere. The 5S rRNA genes are arranged in clusters which vary in number from one to six per haploid set. The 5S rDNA sites are found in intercalary positions, at the telomeres, and at, or close to, the centromeres. Microchromosomes and small chromosomes in primitive karyotypes have been found to carry 5S rDNA sequences. The results are discussed in relation to ideas on the karyological evolution of Amphibia.