[A new test (C-test) for quantitative examination of crowding with test results in amblyopic and ametropic patients (author's transl)]

Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 1982 Mar;180(3):210-5. doi: 10.1055/s-2008-1055051.
[Article in German]


A new acuity test was developed with a defined space between symbols to determine the effect of crowding on visual line acuity. Landolt-C was used as a symbol and the space between symbols (either 2 to 3 min. of arc or 17 to 18 min. of arc) was kept constant for all acuity values. The test permits a quantitative examination of crowding phenomena. The experimental results obtained in measurements of visual line acuity in normal-sighted, amblyopic and ametropic subjects are presented. The results of treatment for amblyopia had evidently been interpreted too optimistically in many patients hitherto.

Publication types

  • English Abstract
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Amblyopia / physiopathology*
  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Refractive Errors / physiopathology*
  • Vision Tests*
  • Visual Acuity