Twenty-seven children and infants underwent surgery for bilateral infantile cataracts. In each infant, the lens in one eye was removed by discission and aspiration, and the other lens was removed by lensectomy and anterior vitrectomy. Ten of 27 eyes undergoing lensectomy and vitrectomy developed aphakic cystoid macular edema; in only one eye that underwent discission and aspiration did macular edema develop. Six of the eyes of the first group developed persistent cystoid macular edema, of which four seem to be visually important. Further long-term studies of the prevalence and functional importance of cystoid macular edema after lensectomy and anterior vitrectomy in children are needed. We do not presently advocate this technique except in the treatment of complicated infantile cataracts.