A retrospective analysis of children with renal failure during the first year of life revealed that 20 of 23 patients developed profound neurologic abnormalities. The encephalopathy was characterized by developmental delay, microcephaly, hypotonia, seizures, dyskinesia, and EEG abnormalities. No patient had been dialyzed, and four had not received aluminum salts prior to the development of neurologic symptoms. Inadequate statural growth and poor nutrition were present in all patients. It is probable that infants with chronic renal insufficiency are more susceptible to the development of this syndrome than are older children or adults because of the significant growth and maturation of the brain that occurs during the first years of life.