DNAs from nitrosoethylurea-induced rat neuroblastomas transform NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts in a transfection assay. DNAs of such transformed cells can be used in a subsequent cycle of transfection to generate secondary foci that contain virtually no foreign genetic material besides the sequences carrying the rat neuroblastoma transforming function. These secondary neuroblastoma transfectants were injected into young mice and grew out into fibrosarcomas. Sera from these mice were examined for reactivity with any proteins which were induced specifically by the neuroblastoma transforming sequence. These sera precipitate a polypeptide of about 185,000 daltons from 35S-methionine-labeled cell lysates of the rat neuroblastoma cells that served as DNA donors and in all transfection-derived primary and secondary foci. This protein is present in high levels in all neuroblastoma transfectant clones, but was not detectable in a variety of other transformed cells. Antisera were prepared from mice bearing tumors induced by transformed cells derived by transfection of DNAs from various tumor cell types unrelated to rat neuroblastoma. These antisera failed to immunoprecipitate the 185,000 dalton protein. These data indicate that the synthesis of the 185,000 dalton protein is specifically induced by the neuroblastoma transforming sequence. The protein may be encoded by the transforming sequence and may mediate transformation in this chemically induced tumor.