Despite the presence of a marked decrease in liver protein content 48 h after a single injection of D-galactosamine, increased activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, low-Km hexokinase and pyruvate kinase type M2 were observed in the injured liver. Microsomal aniline hydroxylase activity and cytochrome P-450 content in liver decreased significantly in 48 h of galactosamine treatment but not in the first 2 h in contrast with carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) intoxication. The extents of those changes were not so great as in CCl4-treated rats. The disaggreation of polyribosomes in liver was observed in 24 h of galactosamine treatment. However, the formation of microsomal lipoperoxidation did not increase in the entire course of acute liver injury by the amino sugar. These results taken together with our previous observations indicate that the dysregulation of protein synthesis is an essential biochemical event of hepatocyte injury induced by treatment of rats with galactosamine as well as CCl4.