A survey of 4 selected areas of Papua New Guinea was made during 1979-80 to establish the prevalence of trachoma and its complications, and blindness rates and causes, in those areas. Trachoma was found to be endemic in all the areas studied, but was of mild intensity and rarely caused visual deficit. It is suggested that the most practical step towards reducing the prevalence of trachoma in P.N.G., in the future, is not by a mass treatment campaign, but by basic education in simple hygiene. An overall blindness rate of 0.50% was found in this survey, indicating that blindness is not a big problem in P.N.G. today. However there is still a need for improved Primary Eye Health Care, the training of national ophthalmologists, and provision for one institution for the training of the blind in P.N.G.