Two alpha-ketoaldehyde dehydrogenases, one catalyzing the oxidation of methylglyoxal to pyruvate with NAD and the other with NADP, were isolated from goat liver and happened to be co-purified. Both the enzymes had been extensively purified to the point where only these two enzymes were present. By affinity chromatography on a thiol-Sepharose column, the two enzymes were separated. Molecular weight of both the enzymes was found to be 42,000 by gel filtration in a Sephadex G-200 column. Electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel revealed that the enzymes are composed of single subunits. Interaction with mercurials indicated the presence of SH group(s) in the active site of the NAD-linked enzyme only.