In the Study of Men Born in 1913 it was possible to investigate the influence of repeated health examinations on mortality in a prospective cohort study. On January 1, 1963, 1010 men in the experimental group and 1956 in the control group were alive. The experimental group took part in repeated examinations in 1963, 1967, 1973 and 1980. Overt diseases were treated accordingly. Newly detected hypertension was also treated. By the end of a 15-year-long observation period, the cumulative mortality in the experimental group (14.5%) was not significantly lower than that in the control group (15.7%). In the experimental group, 855 took part. The mortality was significantly higher in the non-participating group. The autopsy frequency decreased for in-hospital deaths but increased for deaths outside hospital during the study period.