Proteinuria was found in at least one of four specimens in 10.7% and in at least two of four specimens in 2.5% of 8,594 schoolchildren, ages 8 to 15 years. To determine the risk of renal disease in isolated proteinuria, the screening program was followed by a systematic clinical evaluation of the proteinuric children. After those with both proteinuria and hematuria were excluded, none of the remaining children was found to have an overt renal disease. Despite urinary protein concentrations in excess of 1,000 mg/dl and protein excretion rates of up to 1 gm in 24 hours, proteinuria proved to be transient or intermittent in every child when a large enough number of urine samples was tested. Children with the highest protein excretion rates (more than 6 mg/hour/m2 at night or more than 20 mg/hour/m2 during the day) and those with the most persistent patterns of proteinuria underwent renal function studies, intravenous pyelography, and renal biopsy. No significant abnormalities was found. Mild nonspecific changes were seen in 12 of 28 biopsies, with mesangial deposits in four. The results show that if hematuria and other signs have been excluded, a benign renal morphologic picture is almost invariably to be expected in intermittent proteinuria; renal biopsy, therefore, is not indicated.