New strategies in the management of Parkinson's disease: a biological approach using a phospholipid precursor (CDP-choline)

Neuropsychobiology. 1982;8(6):289-96. doi: 10.1159/000117914.


CDP-choline, an intermediate in the phospholipid metabolic pathway supposed to improve the functionality of the dopamine (DA) system, was administered to parkinsonian patients in a double-blind cross-over study versus placebo. All patients were already treated with L-dopa + dopa decarboxylase inhibitor. Clinical evaluations were carried out using the Webster Rating Scale (WRS), the Northwestern University Disability Scale (NUDS) and a semiquantitative rating scale for tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. CDP-choline treatment showed a significant improvement of rigidity and bradykinesia and a less important amelioration of tremor. NUDS and WRS showed a similar positive result. Comparing the results obtained by placebo, we found that the actual clinical efficacy of CDP-choline regards mainly bradykinesia and rigidity (23 and 33% improvement, respectively). The positive effect of CDP-choline on parkinsonian patients already treated with L-dopa + dopa decarboxylase inhibitor stands for a possible action on the DA receptor through an activation of the phospholipid metabolism.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Benserazide / therapeutic use
  • Carbidopa / therapeutic use
  • Choline / analogs & derivatives*
  • Cytidine Diphosphate Choline / therapeutic use*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Levodopa / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Parkinson Disease / drug therapy*
  • Receptors, Dopamine / drug effects*


  • Receptors, Dopamine
  • Levodopa
  • Cytidine Diphosphate Choline
  • Benserazide
  • Carbidopa
  • Choline