Pigs vaccinated with glutaraldehyde-fixed alveolar macrophages (AM) infected with African swine fever virus (ASFV) had an accelerated serological response after subsequent challenge and a slight reduction in levels of viraemia. Vaccination of pigs with detergent-treated infected AM produced no detectable serological response and no protection against homologous challenge. Guinea pigs were vaccinated with glutaraldehyde-fixed ASFV-infected cells, detergent-treated infected cells, detergent-treated infected spleen homogenate, purified ASFV or sonicated infected cells. Antibody was detectable by ELISA after vaccination with all preparations except the detergent-treated infected spleen vaccine. However, vaccination with purified ASFV or sonicated infected cells induced antibodies that were also strongly reactive in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-mediated lysis assays. If such antibodies are protective, immunization of pigs with purified ASFV or sonicated infected cells may induce a protective immunity.