The cancer incidence for all of Japan has been estimated for 1975 with the use of data accumulated for 2 or 3 years from the cancer registries participating in the Research Group. Stomach cancer incidence has decreased by 30% in Osaka from 1963 to 1977. Analysis of the histological distribution of this carcinoma demonstrated that 1) the incidence of the so-called "intestinal" type decreased more rapidly than that of the "diffuse" type, and 2) the intestinal type of carcinoma had a more favorable survival rate than has the diffuse type. However, the survival rate of stomach cancer in Osaka increased by 2.6 and 0.7% in males and females, respectively, during 1970-74 compared with that of 1965-70, probably because of early diagnosis and improved treatment. Correlation between age-adjusted cancer morbidity and mortality rates was observed in 30 site-sex samples in 11 districts in Osaka. Only 13 samples (43%) showed statistically significant correlations. Of 12 site-sex samples having survival rates of 20% or more, only one showed significant correlation.