The combination of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and autoimmune hemolytic anemia is rare in childhood. Among 164 instances of ITP and 15 instances of AHA, 11 patients were found to have this combination. Three were found to have systemic lupus erythematosus, one had aplastic anemia, and seven had Evans syndrome. Neutropenia, at times associated with bacterial infections, occurred in four of the latter patients. Unlike most cases of ITP or AHA in childhood, the clinical course of Evans syndrome is usually chronic and relapsing. Treatment including corticosteroids, splenectomy, and immunosuppressive agents has been generally unsatisfactory. In view of the frequent presence of antibodies directed at red blood cells, platelets, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, immunopancytopenia may be a better term for this condition.